Issuing Shares: Understanding The Basics

Issuance of Shares

Sometimes taking the effort to understand how and why things work gives us a better sense of control and offers tangible results. We may never know how the washing machine manages to eat our socks or why Pluto isn’t a planet anymore, but, by reading this article, you should have a better understanding of why stocks are issued and how this issue of shares matters to you.

Once upon a time, there was a company

Everything is better with a story….Here’s a typical example of how and why a stock would be issued:

issued stock

Here’s Julie. Julie’s a baker, known for her famous (and delicious) croissants. She’s just out of university, has a mountain of debts and works out of a small shop. Lately, the demand for her croissants is so high that she knows it’s time to expand her operations. Julie is smart and did the math – she knows she’ll need $100,000 for a bigger space, extra staff and inventory.

issues shares

Only problem: Julie only has $10,000 in the bank and taking a loan is out of the question – she has only just started paying down her student debt. So what is Julie to do?

How does the issuance of stock work?

So Julie decides to issue shares of her company to friends and family in return for cash. These shares represent ownership in Julie’s Bakery. Julie finds 9 people to invest $10,000 each and she invests her own $10,000. Because 10 people (Julie and her 9 friends) invest equally, they all own 10% of Julie’s bakery.

Julie was able to raise the money she needs to expand, and her 9 friends now each own part of her booming business.

And they all lived happily (and financial independently) every after. The End. Sort of…

Issuing shares for cash

Ever heard the expression, “it takes money to make money”? Well, at a certain point, every business will need money to propel it’s growth. In Julie’s case, she needed to hire workers, expand her shop and buy inventory. Oftentimes, companies will issue stock either privately (like Julie), or publicly (on the stock market) to raise the cash they need to invest in their growth.

The pro: Companies are able to raise money without being required to pay anybody back (like they would if it was a bank loan)
The Con: The company gives some ownership. In Julie’s case, after raising money, she only owns 10% of her company (90% owned by here investors).

How to Issue Shares

In Julie’s case, issuing shares was pretty straight-forward issuing: 9 investors paid an equal amount for equal ownership. But in the real world, companies issue shares to millions of people, and those people purchase different amounts. That would be more than a little overwhelming for someone like Julie. Enter the banks. But not just any bank. The kind of bank that can arrange this type of deal can only be an investment bank, like Goldman Sachs (GS) and Morgan Stanley (MS), for example.

What Do These Banks Do?

Issuing shares of stock

After the company and the bank sit down together and discuss their intentions, the bank starts to gather information on the company; financial statements, interviews with suppliers, and creditors and all other company info. Their analysts sift through all this information very carefully to come up with a precise value for the company.

How is the price of the first shares determined?

After the company and the bank sit down together and discuss their intentions, the bank starts to gather information on the company; financial statements, interviews with suppliers, and creditors and all other company info. Their analysts sift through all this information very carefully to come up with a precise value for the company.

Sale of Shares

The bank then takes these 100,000 shares and can do at least two things with it.

  1. Offer to buy it all from the company for a discount (like 9$ instead of $10), and then turn around and sell it into the stock market (pocketing the difference). This is called the bought deal method.
  2. Sell it into the stock market for the company as best as they can. In return they will get a commission for the overall sale. This is called the best-efforts method.

And finally, the market

It’s done. The private stock that belonged to only a few is now a public stock available to everyone. The money that came from the sale of stock is used for whatever purposes the original owners needed it for. The stock trades on the public stock exchange increasing in price if the company does well, and decreasing if it does badly. In return, the company has to show their financial statements to the public and answer to shareholders who own the stock.

How you can profit?

1. Check the NASDAQ and the NYSE for scheduled public offerings.
2. Trade these stocks on Wall Street Survivor on the day they go public.


 

Take course on Initial Public Offerings

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